基本句型

五种基本句型

  • sv (The soldier died)
  • svo (He kill the soldier)
  • svc (He is striong)
  • svoo (I gave him a book)
  • svoc (We consider him courageous)

s: 主语 v:动词 o:宾语 c:补足语

  • svoo 和 svoc 的区别:oc 之间有“是”的关系

从句类型

三种从句类型

  • nC (名词性从句)
  • advC (副词性从句)
  • adjC (形容词性从句)

adjC 就是主从之间存在重复部分以建立关系从句
(e.g The man you asked about is here.)

nC 则是将句子的一部分抽象成为名词性结构
(e.g That I am drinking good wine with friends is my greatest enjoyment.)
(e.g Many husbands enjoy that they do the cooking.)

advC 从句一般对主句有一定的修饰作用(时间地点、条件、原因结果)
(e.g If he calls, I’ll say you are sleeping.(条件))
(e.g While he was lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep.(地点))


句子构成

五个层次的元素

  • Sentence
  • Clause
  • Phrase
  • Word
  • Morpheme

Morpheme: 最小的有意义的元素

Word 包括:
simple word (at,on..)
Derivative(前缀 + root + 后缀)(unkindness)
Compound word(Close-class words + Open-class words)

Phrases: 由 keyword 带领的数个单词的组合

Clauses: 数个 Phrase 的组合,
可独立表意称 Independent Clause
(e.g He knows that)
不可独立表完整意义称 Dependent Clause
(e.g I don’t think)
内含其他 Clause 的称 Complex Clause
(e.g that what you said was not true)


句子结构类型

四种结构类型

  • SPL (简单句)
  • CPD (并列句)
  • CPX (复杂句)
  • CPDX (并列-复杂句)

SPL 单个 Independent Clause
(e.g The boy kicked the ball.)

CPD 两个或更多关联的,Independent Clause
(e.g I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.)

CPX 由一个 Independent Clause 带领数个 Dependent Clause
(e.g We had to go inside when it started raining.)

CPDX 由两个或更多的 Independent Clause 和至少一个 Complex Clause 组成
(e.g I admire Tim. but he doesn’t admire me, although I try hard to impress him.)