冠词的用法

不定冠词的基本用法

  • 用于单数名词的第一次出现(未特指具体人或物)
    e.g. There is a student in the classroom.
  • 表示“每一······”
    e.g. four times a day
  • 表示“同一”
    e.g. They are nearly of an age.
  • 用于做表语的名词前(包括表示职业的名词)
    e.g. It was an earthquake.
  • 不定冠词的重复问题
    e.g. A black and a white cat (一只黑猫和一只白猫)
    e.g. A black and white cat (一只黑白相间的猫)

表示“种类”的用法

  • “猫喜欢鱼”,这“猫”的概念一般有三种表达法:
    e.g. A cat likes fish.(用不定冠词)
    e.g. The cat likes fish.(用定冠词)
    e.g. Cats like fish.(用复数名词)

    • 例外:表示“人类”用 main:
      e.g. Man is the only creature that has developed the power of speech.
  • “the + 形容词”表示某一类人:
    e.g. The wise look to the wiser for advice.

定冠词的用法

  • 一个名词第二次提及时:
    e.g. His car struch a tree; you can still see the mark on the tree.
  • 在某些情况下,说话双方都知道所指的东西:
    e.g. John is in the garden.
  • 后面有限定性定语修饰的名词:
    e.g. This is the book I bought yesterday.
  • 表示“方位”的名词前面:
    e.g. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
    比较:I am going south.(south 是副词)
  • 在“序数词”和形容词最高级前面:
    e.g. The third room is much brighter than the fifth (room).
  • 世界上独一无二的东西
    e.g. the sun, the moon, the earth

不用冠词的场合

  • 在物质名词、抽象名词等前面:
    e.g. Raw rubber looks like milk.

    • 但是,当这些名词具体化,特别是前面有形容词修饰的时候,常用不定冠词:
      e.g. There was a heavy rain last night.
  • 当 bed, church, court, hospital, prison, school / college / university 等词主要表示行为动作而不是建筑物或物品时:
    e.g. He went to bed.(表示:睡觉)
    比较:He went to the bed.(他走到床边)
  • 在某个职位(特别是由一个人担任的):
    e.g. Now he is manager of a bank.
    比较:As a politician, I cannot accept your argument.(政治家不是职位)
  • 两个或更多有关联的名词同用,往往省略冠词:
    e.g. on the left; on the right; 但是:from left to right